Bio-diversity of Sinharaja rain forest

Sinharaja Rain Forest-The Largest Extent of Gondwana Forest in Southern Asia

Sinharaja rain forest” is a Sinhalese word and it means “Lion King. Sinharaja rain forest is the oldest forest patch of the island and it has many names such as UNESCO world heritage site, man and biosphere reserve, and national heritage wilderness. 

Table of Contents

Sinharaja Rain forest – the Green Treasure Trove of Sri Lanka

Sinharaja rain forest” is a Sinhalese word and it means “Lion King. Sinharaja rain forest is the oldest forest patch of the island and it has many names such as UNESCO world heritage site, man and biosphere reserve, and national heritage wilderness. Sinharaja rainforest is a biodiversity hot spot and it is home to hundreds of endemic fauna and flora. By far Sinharaja is the most popular rainforest in Sri Lanka for jungle tours and trekking tours. Undoubtedly, the Sinharaja rainforest tour is one of the best things to do in Sri Lanka for nature lovers.

New Chapter of Sinharaja

A new chapter of Sinharaja starts in 2020 as the government of Sri Lanka issued a special gazette notification to extend the forest cover by 4 times its size today. It could be the most welcoming message in 2020 for the nature lovers of Sri Lanka and the government had earned high praise from the people for its commitment to protecting nature.   

A few decades ago Sinharaja faced the treachery of short-sighted rulers, who removed a large number of trees from Sinharaja and its surrounding forests on a logging project. Even though the logging project had been halted with the new laws to stop forest clearing, Sinharaja and the surrounding forests considerably lost their grip on the ground and Sinharaja forest was distanced from the surrounding patches of forests.  

Despite the prevailing strict laws to protect nature, many people engage in activities that harm Sinharaja and surround the forest. Clearing forests for illegal constructions, cultivating spices, cultivating tea, and gem mining are the most destructive activities that harm nature in Sinharaja. Extending the nature reserve is a timely decision taken by the government mainly to protect the forests located around Sinharaja. 

One day Sinharaja rainforest tour

IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment 2020 on Sinharaja

According to the “The IUCN World Heritage Conservation Outlook Assessment”, which was released on 09 December 2020, the Sinharaja rainforest is walking toward a grim future. In its latest assessment cycle of 252 global Natural World Heritage Sites, The Sinharaja natural world heritage site (SNWHS), has been categorized under the group “significant concern”, natural vegetations that are facing numerous obstacles, invariably the conservation of the forest values are threatened and/or are showing signs of deterioration. The report suggests immediate attention of the relative parties and additional conservation efforts to maintain and/or restore values over the medium to long term. Read more on the report.

History of Sinharaja rainforest

The very first historical note on Sinharaja was written by “Ibn Batutta”, the world’s popular explorer, he had come across Sinharaja as he was walking to the Sacred mountain (Adams peak). The forest was first known to the island as “Sinhalaye Mukalana” (Forest of the Sinhala whose boundaries were unseen), later it was changed to Sinhalaye Raja Vanaya (The Royal Forest of the Sinhala) the name was further changed and became Sinharaja.

How big Sinharaja rainforest?

Sinharaja rain forest occupies 118425 acres in the wet zone of Sri Lanka. Sinharaja is declared a biosphere reserve in 1978 owing to its significance to the world. It is also declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1988 and Sinharaja is the first natural world heritage site on the island.

The Sinharaja forest is 11,187 hectares in extent and when it is contiguous with Panagala, Moapitiya-Runakanda, Dellawa, Warathalagoda, Neluketiya, and Delgoda forest reserve swell up to 47370 hectares, making it the largest constituent of the green canopy in the wet-zone amounting to about 43%. Sinharaja rainforest is a part of the Rakwana mountain range. The highest point of Sinharaja measure to be 1171 feet above sea level.

A tiny village adjoining the oldest rainforest in Asia

Where is the Sinharaja rainforest located?

Sinharaja rain forest is located 6°21′-6°26’N, 80°21′-80°34’E on the world map and it is the last remaining primaeval rain forest on the island. Sinharaja Nature reserve is spread over a huge area in South-West Sri Lanka (Sabaragamuwa province), which is primarily a wet zone region. 

Why choose Sinharaja for the rainforest tour in Sri Lanka?

Why choose Sinharaja for the rainforest tour in Sri Lanka? Because it offers an unmatchable ecological experience. It is difficult to imagine how bizarre the Sinharaja forest, the largest extent of the Gondwana forest in southern Asia (Gondwana supercontinent existed 180 million years ago) is, it is the super biodiversity hotspot in Sri Lanka with the highest concentration of endemic fauna and flora, majestically standing in the heart of Sri Lanka’s wetland, beyond the reach of the lumberman’s axe in 1977. Today it is fully secured and cherished under the emblem of “world heritage site” granted by UNESCO.

Sinharaja tropical rainforest is one of the significant Bio-diversity hot spots in the world. It is difficult to recognize the ecological pattern of the Sinharaja rainforest owing to its large diversity of fauna and flora species.

The beauty and scientific value of the Sinharaja rainforest are beyond the imagination of most of us, protecting this biodiversity treasure trove is really important. We include this unmatchable natural jewel in our Sri Lanka adventure tour package with five hours trek accompanied by one of our rainforest experts.

Exploring the Sinharaja rain forest during your Sri Lank tour is a rare opportunity to immerse in a fascinating wild palette. The Sinharaja rain forest is a rare opportunity to submerge yourself in vital vegetation, almost as wet as the nearby sea, and has a never-ending vibration with life than any other forest.

Sinharaja rain forest: most important super biodiversity hotspot in Sri Lanka

Sinharaja rainforest is the ecosystem with the largest combination of species in Sri Lanka. An unexplored, mysterious, concealed, large part of Sinharaja is still not known to the world and most of the jungle is inaccessible due to dense foliage. You will find that Sinharaja is incomparable to anything that you have seen before, and the fauna and flora, mountains, and borderland villages that are hidden in the jungle will be amazing travel memories.

Unlike Amazon where you have easy access to the interior of the forest using the Amazon river, Sinharaja does not provide navigable water resources to the interior of the forest. Perhaps this might be the reason that most travellers in Sri Lanka overlook Sinharaja against other places such as cultural sites, beaches, mountains, etc.

Sinharaja rainforest package

A large number of travellers like to visit the Sinharaja rainforest during their Sri Lanka trip. Even travellers can spend a night in a nearby hotel on their trip to Sinharaja. Sinharaja rainforest tour is available in many forms, the travellers can book a one-day trip to Sinharaja rainforest from Colombo. Sinharaja rainforest package is available can also combine with any other tour package in Sri Lanka such as 7 days Sri Lanka tour or 8 days Sri Lanka tour package. Sinharaja trip is not only a sri Lanka nature tour it can also be described as a Sri Lanka adventure tour package.

When is the best time for Sri Lanka jungle tour?

When is the best time for the Sri Lanka jungle tour? The best time for the Sinharaja jungle tour is from November to April. During this period, northeast monsoon is in place and it means a large part of the country see dry weather including the west coast, where Sinharaja resides. Sinharaja rainforest is open to visitors throughout the year, however, from April to November the rainforest is coming under heavy downpours very often.

Biodiversity of Sinharaja rainforest

Sinharaja rainforest is the most valuable forest patch on the island and harbours the most endemic fauna and flora species in Sri Lanka. Sinharaja rainforest has a large collection of trees, plants, and animals, facts and figures about the vastness of the fauna and flora of Sinharaja are still not known to the world. But undoubtedly Sinharaja rain forest records the highest bio-diversity among all forests in Sri Lanka and it is a valuable repository of natural wealth.

There had been several exploration missions in the forest, but due to the biological complexity, no one has been able to ascertain the true value of the forest so far. A complete study of the forest cannot be fulfilled within a few days. Due to the vastness of the diversity, it may take even a lifetime to complete the exploration of the ferns, trees, and creatures and reveal the secret of this forest patch.

Flora of Sinharaja rainforest

The richness of Flora in Sinharaja is exceptional Ferns, Colourful flowers, vines, and trees of the canopy and upper canopy create a thick forest cover and create gloomy settings in the body of the forest. Bim Orchid (Arundina graminifolia) can be besotted in many places during the trek.

There are two carnivore plant species that can be found in the forest namely green bandura and red bandura. Red bandura is less occurring in the forest than its counterpart green bandura (Nepanthus distillatoria) and the red bandura. Red bandura is believed to have medicinal value and is useful when treating whooping cough.

Characteristics of flora species found in Sinharaja are similar to the vegetation of wet evergreen rain forests. Rainfall in the forest is measured to be over 5000 mm per annum and it is a region with high humidity all the time. It is estimated that endemism among the fauna and flora is to be to a very high degree. The vegetation density of the reserve is estimated to be very high compared to other forests on the island.

The amount of shrubs, herbs, trees, and seedlings is estimated to be around 240,000 per hectare. Ninety-five per cent of flora is comprised of individuals and can be observed in the ground layer, which is less than one meter in height. Sinharaja recorded a large number of lianas around 30 cm in height.

The estimated density of lianas in the reserve is six to seven hundred per hectare. Sinharaja is inhabited by many species of animals in the country and it is the home to a large number of endemic fauna species. There is very high endemism among the fish, butterflies, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals in the reserve.

Fauna of Sinharaja rainforest

The largest animal recorded in the national park is the Elephant but seen rarely in the forest. Leopards are also recorded within the forest reserve but very few people have spotted them in the park. Leopard is very shy and avoids humans as much as possible. The wild fishing cat is a very common mammal for park visitors. Deer, Sambhur, and wild boar are also can be spotted in the reserve while all vertebrate species move through the tree canopies frequently.

The number of amphibians recorded in the forest is 19 and out of them, 10 species are endemic to the island. Of the 65 butterfly species recorded in the forest 21 species are endemic.

Many rare species of butterflies are found in the forest and some of them are occurring very rarely in other parts of the country such as Common Birdwing (Troidus helena), Blue Mormon (Paoilio Polymnestor), Blue Oakleaf (Kallima philarchas). Twenty-one species of endemic reptiles were recorded in the forest and the number of non-endemic species of reptiles recorded was fifty-one.

Birds in the Sinharaja rainforest

The Jungle fowl (Gallus lafayetii ), the national bird of Sri Lanka, which is endemic to the island can be spotted here with many other indigenous bird species such as Layard’s parakeet (Psittacula calthripae), the Spurfowl (Galloperdix bicalcarata), the Ceylon Hanging Parrot (Loriculus beryllinus), the Ceylon Wood Pigeon (Columba torringtonii), the Ashy-headed Laughing Thrush (Garrulax cinereifrons), Ceylon Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis), the Red-faced Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus), the Brown-capped Babbler (Pellorneum fuscocapillum), and the Ceylon Blue Magpie (Urocissa ornate).

Access to the Sinharaja rainforest

There are 2 access points to the Sinharaja forest, Kudawa Sinharaja rain forest entrance, and Pitadeniya entrance. Both Kudawa entrance and the Pitadeniya entrance are popular starting points of the sinharaja rainforest tours. Kudawa forest office is situated north of Kalwana about 120 kilometres from Colombo and the Pitadeniya entrance is located south of Deniyaya and Mediripitya about 180km from Colombo. Entrance tickets and guiding services can be obtained at the entrance for a fee and it is required.

Weather pattern

Sinharaja rainforest is shared by 3 provinces in Sri Lanka namely the southern province, the western province, and Sabaragamuwa province. This tropical rainforest records high temperature and humidity at any given time of the year. Same time it reeves very high rainfall, and it is one of the places on the island where the yearly rainfall is highest and Sinharaja receive 3000 to 5000 mm every year. Due to the heavy rainfall, it could be a daunting task to find a dry season in Sinharaja. Even during the driest month on the island, February, Sinharaja receives between 180 mm to 200 mm of rainfall, as most parts of the country receive no rain.

Hariyawa water stream

The perennial waterways start in the Sinharaja forest and feed the 2 major rivers of Sri Lanka “Kalu Ganga” and “Gin Ganga”. These waterways create many cascading waterfalls as it makes their way down the forest. “Duli Ella, Ura wetunu Ella, Brahmana Ella are some of the few waterfalls.

Hariyawa water stream is located in southern Sri Lanka and it mingles with Ginganga in the Sinharaja nature reserve. The place, where the stream and Ginganaga meet is one of the deepest points of the stream, Brahmana Ella is located some 500 meters from this point.

This point is not suitable for baths or any such activities and there had been a few tragic events in which people drowned while bathing here. There are many safe places along the stream, where one can have a safe bath other than the deep spot mentioned here.

The gloomy dark surrounding due to the thick jungle keeps the water of the stream very cool even on very warm days. The water of Hariyawa water stream can hardly see the sun rays due to the blockage of the thick grown tree canopy. The water is crystal clear and clean while it is filtered by nature and still not in touch with humans.

Waterfalls of Sinharaja rainforest

By far Doowili Ella is the most attractive waterfall in the reserve, which is also the best-known waterfall within the group of waterfalls in the region. The waterfall can be accessed very easily since it is located at the edge of the reserve.

The waterfall is just 6 km from Neluwa, the nearest city to the waterfalls. The height of the fall is estimated to be 17m and it is 1m in width. The name ‘Doowili Ella’ means the dust fall, it is named after the dusting spray which arises, while it is tumbling down the mountain.

Brahmana Ella is estimated to be 150 feet and the cascading fall is divided into five distinct parts. The waterfall is 12 km from Neluwa city. The waterfall is used for power generation today. The waterfall is located within the pr9tected area of the Sinharaja nature reserve.

The number of waterfalls that arises from the Hariyawa stream is 5 including the Duvili Ella. Rest of the waterfalls are Tattu Ella, Gal Oruwa Ella, Uran Wetunu Ella, and Brahmana Ella. From the point, where the stream meets the Ginangana, which marks the beginning of the journey to the waterfalls, to the last waterfalls is around 1/2 kilometre.  

All these fascinating waterfalls can be viewed within a few hours of time due to their proximity to each other. It is very rare to see 5 beautiful waterfalls on a single journey within a short period of time like here.

How to reach Sinharaja waterfalls

The pathway to the waterfalls is extremely beautiful with a thick jungle on both sides. One needs to wear shoes that are designed for walking or climbing. Even though it is not as hard as rock climbing, it is not a very easy task either to climb the small mountains along the way. At the end of the journey, the visitors can explore all the five waterfalls that are located in the verging forest.

At present, the pathway is developed and the journey had become easier than it had been. The changes have made some destruction of nature, which could hurt the nature lovers who visit the waterfalls. Steps were added to the places, where it was difficult to climb.

Walking here is adventurous and a reason for satisfaction. The fresh air and cool breeze eliminate the difficulty of walking and keep you alive. The trees that are bent over the pathway make a beautiful view along the way. This journey can be used for adventure holidays and it can be easily offered as a day excursion from beach hotels in western and southern Sri Lanka.

The pathway is divided into directing the people in two different directions after a few several minutes. One pathway directs you to the Duwili Ella and Tattu Ella, while the second pathway takes you to the Gal Oruwa Ella and Uran Wetunu Ella. The visitors are properly directed in the proper direction by the arrow signs along the way.

The pathway becomes more difficult towards the end of the journey and it may be very difficult to go through the jungle in several places. If you need any outside help, you can have the help of the trees and plants that bent over the pathway to help the passerby. Pathways are very dark and gloomy due to the thick jungle and it is full of small hillocks and escapements and bends. In some places, the pathway is blocked by the roots of large trees.

It was almost not possible to reach these waterfalls due to the conditions of the pathway. It is a pleasure to note that the present condition of the pathway is largely improved in the last few years. Lanka Gama is one of the most beautiful and remote villages near the waterfalls is also worth including in the journey.

Accommodation in Sinharaja forest

There are only very few up-market hotels in the vicinity of Sinharaja forest but there are many accommodation providers with small properties that provide the visitors with clean and secure accommodation at an affordable rate. If you are heading to Sinharaja during the peak holiday season in Sri Lanka (from November to April) it is strongly recommended to have your accommodation finalized before arriving here. It might be difficult to find a place to sleep at the last moment during the high-occupancy period.

Village homestays

Sinharaja Sumitrayo (friends of Sinharaja) and Sinharaja village trust are two important organizations that are represented by the adjoining village community. A large number of villagers depend on the bounty of Sinharaja and the Sinharaja forest is an important income generator for some.

These 2 organizations are fully focused on protecting the forest through knowledge sharing, and skills among the members about the importance of conservation of Sinharaja forest while using the forest for financial gains. They have turned the village resources to the benefit of the travellers, without any negative impact on the forest. Same time villagers also benefitted from these programs.

One such important initiative was an expansion of homestays that had already been in practice for some time in the area. As a traveller, anyone can support these communities by using the homestay accommodations provided by villagers, while enjoying warm, welcoming, and personalized service to the travellers.

Inquiries for homestay through:

Tel: 0094-45-5681977, 009411631334,

Hiniduma Rainforest community

Tel: 0094-91-2232585, Web:

Forest lodging

The department of forest maintains dormitories for the visitors at Kudawa and Pitadeniya entrances. The reservation of rooms is possible only at the headquarters of the forest department in Colombo from Monday to Friday during office hours.

Forest department
Tel: 0094-11-2866624

There are many members of the Sinharaja guide association, who are primarily young people from the nearby villages. They are providing guided village tours and jungle trekking to travellers. Seerendipity tours always use the service of these young village boys who are very knowledgeable about the Fauna and Flora of Sinharaja.

These young boys are well trained to be rainforest guides through the projects and seminars sponsored by government and non-governmental organizations.